Universe 3 | | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. Godspeed - Die Ankunft (Across The Universe, #3) on pmangahub.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Godspeed - Die Ankunft (Across The Universe, #3). Abgerundet wird der neue Patch mit diversen Bugfixes. Die offiziellen Patchnotes zum neuen Empire Universe 3-Update sind im EU3-Forum gelistet. Mit diesen.
Schlagwort: Empire Universe 3Universe 3 | | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. Godspeed - Die Ankunft (Across The Universe, #3) on pmangahub.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Godspeed - Die Ankunft (Across The Universe, #3). Abgerundet wird der neue Patch mit diversen Bugfixes. Die offiziellen Patchnotes zum neuen Empire Universe 3-Update sind im EU3-Forum gelistet. Mit diesen.
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There are dynamical forces acting on the particles in the universe which affect the expansion rate.
Before , it was expected that the expansion rate would be decreasing as time went on due to the influence of gravitational interactions in the universe; and thus there is an additional observable quantity in the universe called the deceleration parameter , which most cosmologists expected to be positive and related to the matter density of the universe.
In , the deceleration parameter was measured by two different groups to be negative, approximately Spacetimes are the arenas in which all physical events take place.
The basic elements of spacetimes are events. In any given spacetime, an event is defined as a unique position at a unique time.
A spacetime is the union of all events in the same way that a line is the union of all of its points , formally organized into a manifold.
Events, such as matter and energy, bend spacetime. Curved spacetime, on the other hand, forces matter and energy to behave in a certain way.
There is no point in considering one without the other. The universe appears to be a smooth spacetime continuum consisting of three spatial dimensions and one temporal time dimension an event in the spacetime of the physical universe can therefore be identified by a set of four coordinates: x , y , z , t.
On average, space is observed to be very nearly flat with a curvature close to zero , meaning that Euclidean geometry is empirically true with high accuracy throughout most of the Universe.
However, present observations cannot exclude the possibilities that the universe has more dimensions which is postulated by theories such as the string theory and that its spacetime may have a multiply connected global topology, in analogy with the cylindrical or toroidal topologies of two-dimensional spaces.
Spacetime events are not absolutely defined spatially and temporally but rather are known to be relative to the motion of an observer.
Minkowski space approximates the universe without gravity ; the pseudo-Riemannian manifolds of general relativity describe spacetime with matter and gravity.
General relativity describes how spacetime is curved and bent by mass and energy gravity. The topology or geometry of the universe includes both local geometry in the observable universe and global geometry.
Cosmologists often work with a given space-like slice of spacetime called the comoving coordinates. The section of spacetime which can be observed is the backward light cone , which delimits the cosmological horizon.
The cosmological horizon also called the particle horizon or the light horizon is the maximum distance from which particles can have traveled to the observer in the age of the universe.
This horizon represents the boundary between the observable and the unobservable regions of the universe. These are called, respectively, the flat, open and closed universes.
The universe may be fine-tuned ; the Fine-tuned universe hypothesis is the proposition that the conditions that allow the existence of observable life in the universe can only occur when certain universal fundamental physical constants lie within a very narrow range of values, so that if any of several fundamental constants were only slightly different, the universe would have been unlikely to be conducive to the establishment and development of matter , astronomical structures, elemental diversity, or life as it is understood.
The universe is composed almost completely of dark energy, dark matter, and ordinary matter. Other contents are electromagnetic radiation estimated to constitute from 0.
The proportions of all types of matter and energy have changed over the history of the universe. Dark matter, a mysterious form of matter that has not yet been identified, accounts for Dark energy, which is the energy of empty space and is causing the expansion of the universe to accelerate, accounts for the remaining Matter, dark matter, and dark energy are distributed homogeneously throughout the universe over length scales longer than million light-years or so.
Between the larger structures are voids , which are typically 10— Mpc 33 million— million ly in diameter. The observable universe is isotropic on scales significantly larger than superclusters, meaning that the statistical properties of the universe are the same in all directions as observed from Earth.
The universe is bathed in highly isotropic microwave radiation that corresponds to a thermal equilibrium blackbody spectrum of roughly 2.
An explanation for why the expansion of the universe is accelerating remains elusive. It is often attributed to "dark energy", an unknown form of energy that is hypothesized to permeate space.
However, in the present dark-energy era, it dominates the mass—energy of the universe because it is uniform across space. Two proposed forms for dark energy are the cosmological constant , a constant energy density filling space homogeneously,  and scalar fields such as quintessence or moduli , dynamic quantities whose energy density can vary in time and space.
Contributions from scalar fields that are constant in space are usually also included in the cosmological constant. The cosmological constant can be formulated to be equivalent to vacuum energy.
Scalar fields having only a slight amount of spatial inhomogeneity would be difficult to distinguish from a cosmological constant. Dark matter is a hypothetical kind of matter that is invisible to the entire electromagnetic spectrum , but which accounts for most of the matter in the universe.
The existence and properties of dark matter are inferred from its gravitational effects on visible matter, radiation, and the large-scale structure of the universe.
Other than neutrinos , a form of hot dark matter , dark matter has not been detected directly, making it one of the greatest mysteries in modern astrophysics.
Dark matter neither emits nor absorbs light or any other electromagnetic radiation at any significant level. Dark matter is estimated to constitute The remaining 4.
This matter includes stars , which produce nearly all of the light we see from galaxies, as well as interstellar gas in the interstellar and intergalactic media, planets , and all the objects from everyday life that we can bump into, touch or squeeze.
Ordinary matter commonly exists in four states or phases : solid , liquid , gas , and plasma. However, advances in experimental techniques have revealed other previously theoretical phases, such as Bose—Einstein condensates and fermionic condensates.
Ordinary matter is composed of two types of elementary particles : quarks and leptons. An atom consists of an atomic nucleus , made up of protons and neutrons, and electrons that orbit the nucleus.
Because most of the mass of an atom is concentrated in its nucleus, which is made up of baryons , astronomers often use the term baryonic matter to describe ordinary matter, although a small fraction of this "baryonic matter" is electrons.
Soon after the Big Bang , primordial protons and neutrons formed from the quark—gluon plasma of the early universe as it cooled below two trillion degrees.
A few minutes later, in a process known as Big Bang nucleosynthesis , nuclei formed from the primordial protons and neutrons.
This nucleosynthesis formed lighter elements, those with small atomic numbers up to lithium and beryllium , but the abundance of heavier elements dropped off sharply with increasing atomic number.
Some boron may have been formed at this time, but the next heavier element, carbon , was not formed in significant amounts. Big Bang nucleosynthesis shut down after about 20 minutes due to the rapid drop in temperature and density of the expanding universe.
Subsequent formation of heavier elements resulted from stellar nucleosynthesis and supernova nucleosynthesis. Ordinary matter and the forces that act on matter can be described in terms of elementary particles.
A true force-particle "theory of everything" has not been attained. A hadron is a composite particle made of quarks held together by the strong force.
Hadrons are categorized into two families: baryons such as protons and neutrons made of three quarks, and mesons such as pions made of one quark and one antiquark.
Of the hadrons, protons are stable, and neutrons bound within atomic nuclei are stable. Other hadrons are unstable under ordinary conditions and are thus insignificant constituents of the modern universe.
Most of the hadrons and anti-hadrons were then eliminated in particle-antiparticle annihilation reactions, leaving a small residual of hadrons by the time the universe was about one second old.
A lepton is an elementary , half-integer spin particle that does not undergo strong interactions but is subject to the Pauli exclusion principle ; no two leptons of the same species can be in exactly the same state at the same time.
Electrons are stable and the most common charged lepton in the universe, whereas muons and taus are unstable particle that quickly decay after being produced in high energy collisions, such as those involving cosmic rays or carried out in particle accelerators.
The electron governs nearly all of chemistry , as it is found in atoms and is directly tied to all chemical properties.
Neutrinos rarely interact with anything, and are consequently rarely observed. Neutrinos stream throughout the universe but rarely interact with normal matter.
The lepton epoch was the period in the evolution of the early universe in which the leptons dominated the mass of the universe. It started roughly 1 second after the Big Bang , after the majority of hadrons and anti-hadrons annihilated each other at the end of the hadron epoch.
The mass of the universe was then dominated by photons as it entered the following photon epoch. A photon is the quantum of light and all other forms of electromagnetic radiation.
It is the force carrier for the electromagnetic force , even when static via virtual photons. The effects of this force are easily observable at the microscopic and at the macroscopic level because the photon has zero rest mass ; this allows long distance interactions.
Like all elementary particles, photons are currently best explained by quantum mechanics and exhibit wave—particle duality , exhibiting properties of waves and of particles.
The photon epoch started after most leptons and anti-leptons were annihilated at the end of the lepton epoch, about 10 seconds after the Big Bang.
Atomic nuclei were created in the process of nucleosynthesis which occurred during the first few minutes of the photon epoch.
For the remainder of the photon epoch the universe contained a hot dense plasma of nuclei, electrons and photons. About , years after the Big Bang, the temperature of the Universe fell to the point where nuclei could combine with electrons to create neutral atoms.
As a result, photons no longer interacted frequently with matter and the universe became transparent. The highly redshifted photons from this period form the cosmic microwave background.
Tiny variations in temperature and density detectable in the CMB were the early "seeds" from which all subsequent structure formation took place.
General relativity is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in and the current description of gravitation in modern physics.
It is the basis of current cosmological models of the universe. General relativity generalizes special relativity and Newton's law of universal gravitation , providing a unified description of gravity as a geometric property of space and time , or spacetime.
In particular, the curvature of spacetime is directly related to the energy and momentum of whatever matter and radiation are present.
The relation is specified by the Einstein field equations , a system of partial differential equations. In general relativity, the distribution of matter and energy determines the geometry of spacetime, which in turn describes the acceleration of matter.
Therefore, solutions of the Einstein field equations describe the evolution of the universe. Combined with measurements of the amount, type, and distribution of matter in the universe, the equations of general relativity describe the evolution of the universe over time.
This metric has only two undetermined parameters. An overall dimensionless length scale factor R describes the size scale of the universe as a function of time; an increase in R is the expansion of the universe.
When R changes, all the spatial distances in the universe change in tandem; there is an overall expansion or contraction of space itself.
This accounts for the observation that galaxies appear to be flying apart; the space between them is stretching.
The stretching of space also accounts for the apparent paradox that two galaxies can be 40 billion light-years apart, although they started from the same point Second, all solutions suggest that there was a gravitational singularity in the past, when R went to zero and matter and energy were infinitely dense.
It may seem that this conclusion is uncertain because it is based on the questionable assumptions of perfect homogeneity and isotropy the cosmological principle and that only the gravitational interaction is significant.
However, the Penrose—Hawking singularity theorems show that a singularity should exist for very general conditions.
Hence, according to Einstein's field equations, R grew rapidly from an unimaginably hot, dense state that existed immediately following this singularity when R had a small, finite value ; this is the essence of the Big Bang model of the universe.
Understanding the singularity of the Big Bang likely requires a quantum theory of gravity , which has not yet been formulated. Third, the curvature index k determines the sign of the mean spatial curvature of spacetime  averaged over sufficiently large length scales greater than about a billion light-years.
Conversely, if k is zero or negative, the universe has an infinite volume. By analogy, an infinite plane has zero curvature but infinite area, whereas an infinite cylinder is finite in one direction and a torus is finite in both.
A toroidal universe could behave like a normal universe with periodic boundary conditions. Some speculative theories have proposed that our universe is but one of a set of disconnected universes, collectively denoted as the multiverse , challenging or enhancing more limited definitions of the universe.
Max Tegmark developed a four-part classification scheme for the different types of multiverses that scientists have suggested in response to various Physics problems.
An example of such multiverses is the one resulting from the chaotic inflation model of the early universe. In this interpretation, parallel worlds are generated in a manner similar to quantum superposition and decoherence , with all states of the wave functions being realized in separate worlds.
Effectively, in the many-worlds interpretation the multiverse evolves as a universal wavefunction. If the Big Bang that created our multiverse created an ensemble of multiverses, the wave function of the ensemble would be entangled in this sense.
The least controversial, but still highly disputed, category of multiverse in Tegmark's scheme is Level I. The multiverses of this level are composed by distant spacetime events "in our own universe".
Tegmark and others  have argued that, if space is infinite, or sufficiently large and uniform, identical instances of the history of Earth's entire Hubble volume occur every so often, simply by chance.
Tegmark calculated that our nearest so-called doppelgänger , is 10 10 metres away from us a double exponential function larger than a googolplex.
It is possible to conceive of disconnected spacetimes, each existing but unable to interact with one another. The entire collection of these separate spacetimes is denoted as the multiverse.
Historically, there have been many ideas of the cosmos cosmologies and its origin cosmogonies. Theories of an impersonal universe governed by physical laws were first proposed by the Greeks and Indians.
The modern era of cosmology began with Albert Einstein 's general theory of relativity , which made it possible to quantitatively predict the origin, evolution, and conclusion of the universe as a whole.
Most modern, accepted theories of cosmology are based on general relativity and, more specifically, the predicted Big Bang.
Many cultures have stories describing the origin of the world and universe. Cultures generally regard these stories as having some truth.
There are however many differing beliefs in how these stories apply amongst those believing in a supernatural origin, ranging from a god directly creating the universe as it is now to a god just setting the "wheels in motion" for example via mechanisms such as the big bang and evolution.
Ethnologists and anthropologists who study myths have developed various classification schemes for the various themes that appear in creation stories.
In related stories, the universe is created by a single entity emanating or producing something by him- or herself, as in the Tibetan Buddhism concept of Adi-Buddha , the ancient Greek story of Gaia Mother Earth , the Aztec goddess Coatlicue myth, the ancient Egyptian god Atum story, and the Judeo-Christian Genesis creation narrative in which the Abrahamic God created the universe.
In another type of story, the universe is created from the union of male and female deities, as in the Maori story of Rangi and Papa.
In other stories, the universe is created by crafting it from pre-existing materials, such as the corpse of a dead god—as from Tiamat in the Babylonian epic Enuma Elish or from the giant Ymir in Norse mythology —or from chaotic materials, as in Izanagi and Izanami in Japanese mythology.
In other stories, the universe emanates from fundamental principles, such as Brahman and Prakrti , the creation myth of the Serers ,  or the yin and yang of the Tao.
The pre-Socratic Greek philosophers and Indian philosophers developed some of the earliest philosophical concepts of the universe.
In particular, they noted the ability of matter to change forms e. The first to do so was Thales , who proposed this material to be water.
Thales' student, Anaximander , proposed that everything came from the limitless apeiron. Anaximenes proposed the primordial material to be air on account of its perceived attractive and repulsive qualities that cause the arche to condense or dissociate into different forms.
Anaxagoras proposed the principle of Nous Mind , while Heraclitus proposed fire and spoke of logos.
Empedocles proposed the elements to be earth, water, air and fire. His four-element model became very popular.
Like Pythagoras , Plato believed that all things were composed of number , with Empedocles' elements taking the form of the Platonic solids.
Democritus , and later philosophers—most notably Leucippus —proposed that the universe is composed of indivisible atoms moving through a void vacuum , although Aristotle did not believe that to be feasible because air, like water, offers resistance to motion.
Air will immediately rush in to fill a void, and moreover, without resistance, it would do so indefinitely fast. Although Heraclitus argued for eternal change, his contemporary Parmenides made the radical suggestion that all change is an illusion, that the true underlying reality is eternally unchanging and of a single nature.
Parmenides' idea seemed implausible to many Greeks, but his student Zeno of Elea challenged them with several famous paradoxes.
Aristotle responded to these paradoxes by developing the notion of a potential countable infinity, as well as the infinitely divisible continuum.
Unlike the eternal and unchanging cycles of time, he believed that the world is bounded by the celestial spheres and that cumulative stellar magnitude is only finitely multiplicative.
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Resources Get up to speed with the following resources. Tutorials Watch our getting started videos to get up to speed with Universe or browse our other tutorials.
User Guide This user guide has been designed to help you get comfortable with all of the tools and features of Universe.
Video transition and effects plugins for editors and motion graphics artists. Cinema 4D 3D modeling, animation and simulation software Team Render Get access to our team render services Cineversity Get access to our online library of learning resources.
How do I order? Toggle navigation. RSS Feed. Red Giant Team. Mark Egan August 19, at am. Unlike the first two games in the series, which fell into the roleplaying and resource-management category, Universe 3 poses true logic-based, [RPG-style] puzzles for you to solve.
Your characters move about in much the same way as their counterparts in Breach , Omnitrend's tactical combat RPG.
You set out to escort a diplomat on a trip to the hyperspace booster a key element of Universe 2 to investigate the disappearance of shipments from Earth to this remote corner of the star map.
The story takes a quick twist when you and your crew are captured, forcing you to rack up some criminal charges during your escape. You'll spend the rest of your time looking for evidence about the missing shipments, which will clear you of the charges as well as wrap up the mystery.
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If the manual is missing and you own the original manual, please contact us!Bkepub added it Apr 23, Sign Up. In order to upgrade, please log in to your Red Giant account.